The purpose of this guide is to familiarize RVC Adult League members with the some of the policies and procedures at RVC. It is not meant to serve as a substitute for the USA Volleyball Rulebook, which covers the rules of volleyball in detail. Nor, does it necessarily represent all operating policies of the club. RVC does have copies of the USA Volleyball rules available. Play at Richmond Volleyball club is governed largely by the rules of USA Volleyball. There are some exceptions that are outlined in this booklet and/or the RVC Rules of Play.
The information contained herein is subject to change at any time. The management of Richmond Volleyball Club reserves the right to make decisions for the betterment of the Club or its leagues. Situations may be considered on an individual basis.
If you have questions or comments or would like further information about anything contained here, please contact the RVC office at (804) 358-3000 or via email at email@example.com.
In order to participate in any leagues (adult evening leagues, juniors travel, etc.) at RVC, players must become members of the Club before using the facilities. Annual membership dues are $75 per person, payable in the Fall Season. Membership is prorated for those who join at other times of the year ($75 in the winter, $60 in the spring, and $50 in the summer). One season membership may be purchased for $50. Open gym is now available for members only. Members may also utilize the facilities at designated times when leagues are not in progress. Membership does not guarantee participation on a team and it is the member’s responsibility, though RVC staff is glad to help, to find a suitable team.
You can become a member by completing the online process at on our website at www.RVC.net. RVC reserves the right to refuse membership to anyone though this will never be unreasonably withheld. Any member who does not remain in good financial standing with RVC will not be allowed to participate in any RVC activities (including open gym or SNAP) and may face penalties such as forfeiture of games and loss of membership privileges and any other consequences that management may deem necessary.
It is the responsibility of each member to become familiar with the policies, rules and guidelines of the Richmond Volleyball Club.
Unfortunately, it has been our experience that non-members, former members, and others occasionally attend open gym or participate in leagues without a valid membership or one-day pass (open gym). They do so by providing incorrect information when signing in or by bypassing the sign in process altogether. Individuals who purposefully provide false information or do not adhere to the policies of RVC will be prohibited from playing or participating in any RVC activities for three months. Repeat offenses will incur longer prohibitions.
The Richmond Volleyball Club (RVC) values its members, both junior and adult, and believes that membership in RVC implies certain rights including open communication, transparent Board actions, the ability to acquire more information, and the right to participate in a positive way to help guide the future direction of RVC.
Membership: No person otherwise eligible for membership shall be denied membership because of race, creed, color, national origin, sex, age, sexual orientation, disability, or political belief.
Communications: Members will receive regular communication from RVC via newsletters, the website, facility postings, and various other social media channels.
Oversight of Directors: Notice of meeting dates, times and locations will be posted in a timely manner. Members may attend any Board of Directors meeting and shall have reasonable access to financial statements and minutes.
Right to run for the Board of Directors: Members shall have an equal right to run for the Board of Directors and hold office, subject only to specified qualifications, uniformly applied.
Contribute/Participate: Members shall have the right to contribute to the direction of RVC through committee participation and direct dialogue with directors and staff.
Due Process: At any time a membership is suspended or revoked, that member may ask for a review of the cause for revocation or suspension. Review will be provided at the appropriate level within a reasonable time frame.
- Feel free to email or call with questions you may have.
- Speak with a staff person on your night of play or use the match comment/feedback form to share your thoughts after playing.
- Volunteer on one or more of our various committees such as Juniors Program Development, Member Engagement, Volunteer Recognition, Event Planning, Finance, and more (subject to change). Visit our Committe page for more information. To volunteer, please contact RVC@RVC.net and let us know of your interest.
- Become a team representative. Team representatives are generally the first informed about potential changes to leagues and we rely on them to share their teammates concerns.
- Submit your candidacy for the Board of Directors. Year round, we seek potential candidates for the Board. We encourage anyone who thinks they may be interested in a Board position to first volunteer on one of our many committees (but this is not required). New Board members are appointed at the annual meeting each year (usually in March). If interested, please submit your letter of interest along with a resume or curriculum vitae to firstname.lastname@example.org. Be sure to put “RVC Board Candidate” in the subject line. The Board of Directors and management staff of the Richmond Volleyball Club values the opinions and experience of its members. We encourage everyone with the time and interest to become involved. Review our current Board of Directors.
There is no minimum age requirement to participate in the RVC Adult League program. We have players of various ages (as young as 8 and as old as 73) play in the league. Parents should be aware that our nightly Adult League is in an adult environment and alcohol is served.
Minors wishing to play must have parental consent, approval of the League Manager, and be in good financial standing with RVC.
Please be aware of our Guests & Children policy, which requires all children must be supervised by an adult.
Players generally are responsible for finding their own team – however RVC staff is happy to help and we have several tools to facilitate finding a team. Once a person has identified the level of competition they desire, it is generally not difficult to identify a team in need of players. We do encourage you to find a team as early in the season as possible, because rosters become set after the third week and existing members cannot be added. RVC maintains a Yahoo! group and Facebook page to assist in the process. Players are also encouraged to contact the office to find out if any teams have done the same.
RVC does maintain a list, posted on the website, of any players looking for teams. In addition, the office staff helps match players without a team with existing teams that need a player. In most cases, a person who is willing to talk to teams and meet other members should be able to find a team within a few weeks. The difficult part is determining the level of play and finding the right level of competition suitable for an individual new to RVC.
Teams are divided into leagues based on the level of competition in men’s, women’s and coed divisions. “Open” is the highest designation, followed by AA, A (advanced), B (intermediate) and C (novice or beginner) leagues. Some divisions are further broken down to differentiate between the leagues.
Each league will play on the same night for the entire season. Men’s and women’s leagues are held on Sunday, Monday and Tuesday nights with coed play on Wednesdays, Thursdays and Fridays.
When filled to capacity, RVC’s leagues typically consist of 10 teams. Each team plays two matches per night, one each against two different teams. A match consists of three 25-point games or 55 minutes, whichever comes first. The first match of the evening starts at 6:05.
One team (the team “10” spot) plays at 7:05 and 8:05 each week. This spot may be bid on when completing the team registration form. The team with the winning bid will enjoy a schedule that avoids all late matches.
The other nine teams in the division will have similar schedules. Playing times will vary from week to week with occasional “splits” (matches at 6:05 and 8:05, for example). Matches will be back to back for the majority of the season.
RVC usually closes for all major holidays. Please check your playing schedules carefully. Special events sometime cause schedule changes. Advance notification will be given when possible.
A Team Placement Committee meets to review all team registrations and requests for division placement. The committee is comprised of RVC members (who volunteer) and management staff. This committee makes every effort to honor a team’s request for placement but cannot guarantee that every request will be honored as RVC reserves the right to make decisions based upon the best interest of the club and the leagues. The committee uses the following hierarchy for determining acceptance into requested divisions –
- Teams that played in most recent past season and registered on time are placed in requested division if parity is maintained (teams finishing first/second, last/next-to-last may be moved up or down as appropriate).
- Teams that played in most recent past season and registered on time and have special request are reviewed and placed accordingly (there is room in requested division, parity is maintained, etc.)
- Teams that did not play in most recent past season but registered on time are placed into requested divisions as available. When not available, available options are provided and choice is given to these teams before placing late registering teams.
- Teams that did not register on time are placed based on availability and suitability after all teams that registered on time have been placed.
- Teams that are not able to be placed into requested divisions are contacted and provided with
Timely submission of the registrations can determine whether a team receives its requested division placement!! When two otherwise equally eligible teams request the last remaining spot, the team that registered earliest is given the placement.
A new beginner team is defined as a team with no more than 2 current RVC members.
Refund policy: If RVC is unable to place a team in a suitable (as determined by management and the placement committee) division, the entire fee will be refunded. Upon submission, all team fees are subject to a non-refundable $100 administrative fee if the team withdraws, regardless of reason for withdrawal. Once the Team Placement Committee has reviewed the team registrations and made its initial recommendations, the Program Manager or designee will make every effort to contact teams regarding placement only if a team does not receive its first or second choice of placement. At this time if a team decides to withdraw, there will be no additional penalty other than the $100.00 administrative fee; however, the entire remaining team fee (excluding referee fees) is non-refundable once the schedule has been posted.
In order to maintain a competitive balance in the leagues, teams may be moved up or down when creating the following season’s leagues. While we recognize that this may cause a hardship by changing the normal night of play for a team, our experience has shown that is highly important to maintain parity within divisions for the playing enjoyment of all teams. In cases where team records merit a change, more than one team may be moved up or down.
RVC management reserves the right to move any number of teams in order to better balance the leagues, but will contact teams before making unexpected changes.
How does a team get in a certain league and/or night?
After registration closes for the upcoming season, the Adult Program Manager reviews all the registrations to form leagues and then meets with a committee of 3-5 members to review, discuss, and finalize the team placements. Teams are first placed into a league/night using the following criteria:
1. First priority is given to teams playing in the most current season that have requested the same league and night.
2. Second priority is given to teams playing in the most current season that have requested a different league and/or night.
3. Third priority is given to teams that are new or are not playing in the most current season
4. Fourth priority is given to teams that registered after registration closed (no matter if they are new or returning).
If two teams meet the exact same criteria, priority is given to the team that registered first.
Once initial placement has been determined, a team’s record (as it stands on the date registration closes) is reviewed. The rise and fall rule is used and adjustments to league team placement might be made in order to keep the leagues as competitive as possible while making every effort to keep a team on the same night they requested. Any league changes that differ from a team’s initial request is reviewed and discussed by the Placement Committee to make sure the move is appropriate for the team.
Teams are then contacted when the Adult League Manager and Placement Committee have placed all teams. Once all teams have been notified and leagues are finalized, the team bids for the 7/8pm playing slots (if applicable) are reviewed and leagues are scheduled accordingly.
Being a Team Rep can be a bit of work. You’re responsible to relaying information to your team, registering the team, assigning payments and keeping your team’s roster up-to-date. Please be sure that your contact information is correct and that you are receiving emails from RVC. At the beginning of each season, an email is sent with information about RVC and the duties of a team representative. Once schedules are finalized, all information for team representatives (i.e. schedules, rule changes, etc.) will be posted on the RVC web site.
Please note, each member is assigned a membership number that is to be used for all roster transactions. New members receive a number once their information is completed online. Teams also receive a number, and this number is to be used for all transactions as well.
We appreciate all that Team Reps do. Keep your eye out for Team Rep special events throughout the year.
Instructions are available on our website detailing how to register a team, create and modify your roster, etc. Many of these functions have deadlines and it is important to stay on top of them. Missing a deadline can create forfeits for your team. All players must pay by a certain week, be added or dropped from your roster, etc. If you are unsure how to do any of this, please feel free to contact our league manager at email@example.com. Deadlines for registration, rosters, and other events will be posted in advance. Standings for each division are posted within a few days of the last matches on the web site Please contact our office via e-mail, at firstname.lastname@example.org if you detect a mistake in the win-loss records.
At the end of each season, we wrap it up with a end of season celebration that everyone is invited to attend. The top two teams from each league tournament advance to Finals Night and play one match to determine the tournament winner. Special food & drink prices, raffles, entertainment and/or games are often provided by RVC. Please encourage your teammates to come to the party.
In addition to HUGE bragging rights, the Finals Night winners will have their team pictures posted on the web. Awards will be given to those teams finishing first in the regular season provided that they indicate on the team registration form that they wish to receive an award.
Matches that are cancelled because of inclement weather or other reasons beyond the control of RVC will not be rescheduled. In the event of bad weather, RVC will make a decision regarding play no later than 4:00 pm on that day. We will notify you of closure by updating: our RVC voice mail message, web site, social media accounts and local TV stations when we can. However, sometimes all of these avenues are not accessible to us due to circumstances beyond our control (i.e. loss of power, phone lines down, etc.). For more information, review our Inclement Weather policy.
Referees that have completed required training, observation and evaluation are scheduled by RVC to work all scheduled matches with the exception of Quads divisions. Teams playing in Quads divisions self-referee their matches.
Match Comment forms are available if you wish to express your opinion or comment – either good or bad – on a particular match or referee.
RVC offers Referee Clinics as needed by demand each season. It’s a great way to earn some extra income. Please check with the office for more information.
RVC is open for pick-up games and practice on Mondays-Fridays from 5:00 to 5:50 pm on a first-come, first-served basis for RVC members only at no cost. Open Gym is also available occasionally at other times. Please check the club calendar for dates.
Unfortunately, it has been our experience that non-members, former members, and others occasionally attend open gym or participate in leagues without a valid membership. They do so by providing incorrect information when signing in or by bypassing the sign in process altogether. Individuals who purposefully provide false information or do not adhere to the policies of RVC will be prohibited from playing or participating in any RVC activities for three months. Repeat offenses will incur longer prohibitions.
There may be no personal use of facilities without prior approval from management. Practice courts for current RVC teams and members are available for reservations at times other than during Open Gym depending on availability. Reservations are taken up to one week in advance and must be paid in advance. Depending on seasonal registration, practice courts may also be available during the evening.
The facilities may also be rented to outside organizations for sports and non-sports related activities.
When available, RVC also rents outdoor equipment. Please contact our office at (804) 358-3000 for availability, rates and any additional information.
Guests are welcome at RVC. Due to liability concerns, under no circumstances are guests permitted to take part in activities on the court.
The Richmond Volleyball Club welcomes junior athletes during appropriate times. We offer a number of programs designed to introduce children to the sport of volleyball. During evening league play, our policy requires all children to be supervised by an adult. We define supervision as the child being “within arm’s reach” of the supervising adult. We strongly encourage you to bring a baby-sitter if you are playing. For safety reasons, children under the age of 8 are not allowed on the courts or seating area immediately adjacent to courts at any time adults are playing. Children 8 years and older may enter the court area but must remain seated with a non-playing, supervising adult. Children may not run around unsupervised.
RVC has a Member Service Assistants on duty each evening. They are in place to: answer questions, handle any conflicts, take member forms and keep things running smoothly. They should be found in the vicinity of the Welcome Desk.
The Member Service Assistants should be capable of helping with virtually any problem, but members with questions should feel free to contact the office if a situation is not handled to their satisfaction. Referees are observed throughout the night and the Member Service Assistants are available to step in should a referee become ill or called away for an emergency.
No alcohol may be brought into the club or onto its premises. Alcoholic beverages may not be taken or consumed out of designated areas (building interior, patio, smoking area). RVC adheres to all ABC regulations. Though ABC rules permit a licensed restaurant, at its discretion, to allow patrons to bring personal wine, RVC has chosen not to permit the consumption of wine not purchased at RVC on its property. Any person violating ABC rules will be asked to leave the premises immediately. If a member, violation of ABC rules is cause for membership suspension. Any person, under the age of 21, consuming alcohol will be asked to leave immediately and suspended from all RVC facilities and activities for three months. A second violation will result in a six month to one year suspension or until the individual is 21.
At all times, smoking, including the use of e-cigarettes or vaping, will only be allowed in the designated smoking area.
RVC is committed to providing a safe environment for its members. That commitment is jeopardized when any RVC member illegally uses drugs or possesses, distributes, or sells drugs at RVC. These activities are prohibited and will adversely affect a player’s membership. In addition, these activities constitute a potential danger to the welfare and safety of other members and the public and expose RVC to risks of property loss or damage.
For safety reasons, food and beverages are not permitted on the court. Beverages in containers with a closed top or lid are permitted courtside.
RVC rules prohibit persons playing with open wounds. Kits are available to clean up blood or other bodily fluids if an injury occurs during a match. See a Member Service Assistant for clean-up. If bandages are needed, they are available at the welcome desk.
There will be no volleyball handling/warm-up/play in any non-playing areas. These activities are limited to courts only.
Possession of fireworks, ammunition, firearms, or other weapons or any item or material which by commonly accepted practices and principles would be a hazard or harmful to other persons are prohibited at RVC and at RVC events.
Any member who does not remain in good financial standing with RVC may face penalties such as forfeiture of games, revocation of referee certification, revocation of referee responsibilities, loss of membership privileges and any other consequence that management may deem necessary.
Minors wishing to play must have parental consent, approval of the League Manager, and be in good financial standing with RVC.
RVC’s returned check policy requires a $35 charge for all returned checks. Members whose accounts are not cleared within 30 days risk revocation of membership privileges. Repeated abuses may result in refusal of checks from that member.
As court space allows, skills clinics for members are offered for a nominal fee. In addition to these clinics, other on-demand clinics and private lessons are available for team, group or individual instruction.
Members often seek ways to share information about their businesses with other members. We are pleased to provide bulletin boards in each bathroom where you may post information about your event, service, business, etc. at no charge. Only fliers, posters, notices, etc. approved by management may be posted in any other area. To learn more about sponsorship and advertising opportunities, please email email@example.com.
The RVC Wi-Fi Service is a free wireless internet service provided to the customers and members of RVC. The RVC Wi-Fi Service Acceptable Use Policy is intended to help enhance the use of the internet by preventing unacceptable use. You, as a user of this service, must comply with this Policy. By using the RVC Wi-Fi Service, you acknowledge and agree to follow this Policy and the terms of this Policy as stated. Your violation of this Policy may result in the suspension or termination of your access to the Service and/or other actions including but not limited to cooperation with legal authorities and/or third parties involved in the investigation of any suspected or alleged crime or civil wrongdoing.
You agree to indemnify, defend, and hold harmless RVC and its affiliates, officers, employees, agents, suppliers, sponsors or other partners from any and all third party claims, liabilities, costs, and expenses, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, arising from your use of the Service, your violation of this Agreement, or your violation of any rights of another.
The RVC Wi-Fi Service Acceptable Use Policy prohibits the following:
- Using the Service to transmit any material that, intentionally or unintentionally, violates any applicable local, state, national or international law, or any rule or regulations promulgated thereunder.
- Using the Service to harm, or attempt to harm other persons, businesses or other entities.
- Using the Service to transmit any material that threatens or encourages bodily harm or destruction of property or harasses another.
- Using the Service to make fraudulent offers to sell or buy products, items, or services or to advance any type of financial scam.
- Adding, removing, or modifying identifying network header information in an effort to deceive or mislead is prohibited. Attempting to impersonate any person by using forged headers or other identifying information is prohibited.
- Using the Service to transmit or facilitate any unsolicited commercial email or unsolicited bulk email.
- Using the Service to access, or to attempt to access, the accounts of others, or to penetrate, or attempt to penetrate, security measures of the RVC Wi-Fi Service or another entity’s computer software or hardware, electronic communications system or telecommunications system, whether or not the intrusion results in the access, corruption or loss of data.
- Using the Service to transmit any material that infringes any copyright, trademark, patent, trade secret, or other proprietary rights of any third party, including, but not limited to, the unauthorized copying of copyrighted material, the digitization and distribution of photographs from magazines, books or other copyrighted sources, and the unauthorized transmittal of copyrighted software.
- Using the Service to collect, or attempt to collect, personal information about third parties without their knowledge or consent.
Reselling the Service
Using the Service for any activity which adversely affects the ability of other people or systems to use the RVC Wi-Fi Service or the Internet. This includes “denial of service” (DoS) attacks against another network host or individual user. Interference with or disruption of other network users, network services or network equipment is prohibited. It is your responsibility to ensure that your network is configured in a secure manner.
Using your personal account for high volume or commercial use is prohibited. The Service is intended for periodic, active use of email, newsgroups, file transfers, Internet chat, messaging, and browsing of the Internet. You may stay connected so long as you are actively using the connection for the above purposes. You may not use the Service on a standby or inactive basis in order to maintain a connection. Accordingly, RVC maintains the right to terminate your connection following any extended period of inactivity.
Disclaimer of Warranties and Limitation of Liability
LIMITATION OF LIABILITY. You assume total responsibility for use of the Service and the Internet and access the same at your own risk. RVC and its affiliates, officers, employees, agents, suppliers, sponsors or other partners, has no responsibility whatsoever for the content accessible or actions taken on the internet and the RVC Wi-Fi Service network, and shall not be liable to you for any direct, indirect, incidental, special or consequential damages of any kind including but not limited to any loss of use, loss of business, and/or loss of profit, arising out of or related to this terms of service. Under no circumstances will RVC and its affiliates, officers, employees, agents, suppliers, sponsors or other partners of the RVC Wi-Fi Service be liable to you or any third parties for any amount.
DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES. The Service is provided on an “as is” and “as available” basis. RVC and its affiliates, officers, employees, agents, suppliers, sponsors or other partners, makes no warranty of any kind, written or oral, statutory, express or implied, including any warranty of merchantability, infringement, or fitness for a particular purpose. No advice or information given by RVC and its affiliates, officers, employees, agents, suppliers, sponsors or other partners of the RVC Wi-Fi Service shall create a warranty. RVC and its affiliates, officers, employees, agents, suppliers, sponsors or other partners does not warrant that the Service will be uninterrupted, error-free, or free of viruses or other harmful components.
REVISIONS TO THIS ACCEPTABLE USE POLICY. Representatives of the RVC Wi-Fi Service reserve the right to revise, amend, or modify this Policy, other policies and agreements at any time and in any manner. Notice of any revision, amendment, or modification will be posted in accordance with the Internet Service.
To report any problems with the Wi-Fi service, please contact the RVC business office at 804.358.3000. This is a legal agreement (“Agreement”) between you and RVC governing your use of wireless services (the “Wireless Service”) provided within RVC.
The official Richmond Volleyball Club (RVC)™ social media outlets, such as but not limited to the following, are online venues where members and others can learn about some of the great things happening at the club.
We encourage people to post, comment, and interact with others, and expect that remarks will be on-topic and respectful of the rights and opinions of others. Please note that all posts on RVC accounts are moderated online discussions and not a public forum.
By posting a comment or material of any kind on an RVC sponsored site, the user hereby agrees to the terms and conditions set forth below. Before commenting or including content, you agree to not:
- Post material that is racist, sexist, abusive, profane, hateful, violent, obscene, or pornographic
- Post anything that advocates illegal activity
- Post material that infringes on copyright
- Post phone numbers, email addresses, or anything else for members or others that would violate their privacy
- Post material that contains falsehoods
- Post material that is off-topic (not relating to RVC or volleyball)
- Post material selling products or promoting commercial, political, or other ventures unless documented approved received by RVC
- Libel, incite, threaten, or make ad hominem attacks
- Post material from impersonated profiles
- Post multiple items or duplicate information (from any one person or multiple people)
- All content and posts are also bound by the Terms and Community Guidelines for each service:
RVC reserves the right to do any or all of the following:
- Remove communications that violate these Terms and Conditions
- Remove any communications posted regardless of whether such communications violate these standards
- Ban future posts or block users who violate these Terms and Conditions
- Remove capability from the public to post or comment on RVC’s official sites
Posted comments and images do not necessarily represent the views of RVC. If you have any questions or concerns about our policy or about the content posted on one of our social media sites, please email us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Except for the patio at our Byrdhill location, only service animals are permitted in the Richmond Volleyball Club’s facilities.
Emotional Support Versus Service
The Americans with Disabilities Act does not classify emotional support animals as service animals. To be a service animal, the dog or other animal must perform work or tasks directly related to the individual’s disability. Tasks don’t include providing companionship or comfort to individuals with psychiatric or emotional disabilities.
To be a service animal that supports a psychiatric condition, the animal must help its handler manage mental and emotional disabilities by, for example, interrupting self-harming behaviors, reminding handlers to take medication, checking spaces for intruders, or providing calming pressure during anxiety or panic attacks.
To determine whether an animal is a service animal, businesses may ask only two questions:
- Is the service animal required because of a disability?
- What work or task has the service animal been trained to perform?
We will not ask about the person’s disability or request or require medical documentation from the person with the animal. Because service animals aren’t required to be certified, we will not request a special identification card or training documentation or for a demonstration of the service animal’s work.
In the event of inclement weather, each individual must make the decision whether or not to attend his or her game, match or tournament. Your safety is important to us and your circumstances (such as where you live) may dictate your ability to come to RVC regardless of whether or not we are open.
Typically, we will make every effort to open for tournaments and other special events especially when out of town players may be participating. We will close if we feel conditions are unsafe for the majority of participants.
The assumption should be made that we will be open unless an announcement that we are closed is made. We will make every effort to make a decision/ announcement no later than two hours before the start of the event (league play, tournament, etc.). So, for Adult League which begins at 6:00 p.m., a decision to close will be made by 4:00 p.m; a juniors’ practice which begins at 2:00 p.m. will know by noon, etc.
RVC does not reschedule matches which are cancelled due to reasons beyond the club’s control, such as inclement weather, power outages, etc. With this in mind, RVC management will wait as long as possible to determine whether the conditions warrant closing the facilities.
Once a decision has been made to close, information will be posted on: RVC website when possible, RVC’s Facebook page, Twitter (@RVC_NET) and on local TV stations WTVR6, WRIC8 & WWBT12 .
Due to the number of persons involved, notification will NOT be given to individual teams or members.